Oeuvres de Anatole Baju (French Edition)

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  1. Jules Guesde (1845-1922)
  2. Synonyms and antonyms of décadisme in the French dictionary of synonyms
  3. Aspects of the fin-de-siecle decadent paradox. - Free Online Library
  4. Join Kobo & start eReading today
  5. Synonyms and antonyms of décadisme in the French dictionary of synonyms

More alarming still, were the nation's music enthusiasts who appreciated the art form merely on a technical and not an emotional level, and with no regard for its place within mankind's artistic heritage. Like all Fu's writings, his remedy for such ills was largely impracticable, and he called upon the Chinese citizenry not only to engage in a rigorous study of Western musical theory, but also to imbibe regularly the heady atmosphere of the concert hall, preferably in Europe. If the young author at times appeared to simply regurgitate Fu's aesthetics of musical appreciation, his true contribution to the Occidentalist body of work was more significant.

Zhang's early works were unique in that they offered a guide to concert hall etiquette as well as instructions as to the correct emotional response to various musical forms. Yet, in doing so Zhang was also inculcating in the concert-goer the notion that members of the audience were more than simply passive spectators, they were active participants in the performance itself, a concept of vital importance to the Occidentalist coterie for whom,. Music was…a three dimensional spectacle in which musicians and audience alike participated.

At the concert hall, the Shanghai journalist could observe foreign diplomats drinking champagne, ladies in gala dresses, perfect manners, smooth lighting, ornate architecture, sumptuously printed evening programs, and the euphonious 'revolutions' described by the music of Beethoven or Schubert.

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It was the sanctuary where the foreign residents of Shanghai were affirming their civilization in its most sacred ritual. Perhaps unwittingly, Shanghai's Occidentalists were seeking to replicate the Viennese experience. It was the microcosm that mirrored the macrocosm, the brightly coloured reflection in which the city saw itself, the only true cortigano of good taste.

In the court actor the spectator saw an excellent example of how one ought to dress, how to walk into a room, how to converse, which words one might employ as a man of good taste and which to avoid. It was this very synchronicity between art and the city that Zhang would attempt to capture in prose. While contemporary scholarship depicts the musicality of Zhang's prose as simply a literary device employed by many of his generation to capture the rhythms and sensations of modern urban life, it is more accurate to consider literature as merely the medium through which Zhang might convey how music was the distillation of all human experience.

Yet, in order to give expression to this philosophy, the author would first have to find his literary voice and, more importantly, refine his own relationship with the city, a process which when complete would give birth to two of the most important literary works in the city's history: the aptly-titled fictional work, Urban Symphonies and the collection of essays, Exotic Atmospheres.

However, with the dawn of a clear day, Zhang is finally able to throw off this emotional paralysis and venture outside. The lion's share of this essay is devoted to recording his impressions of the concert itself. This detailed account includes everything from observations on the orchestration and the melodic structure of certain works to the attire and even the stage fright of the performers. As the performers are merely students, Zhang does not hesitate in offering constructive criticism.

He points out the almost whimsical nature of some pieces that pale in comparison to more orthodox works.

Jules Guesde (1845-1922)

There is also the uneven performance of a young pianist who, while technically adept, cannot maintain the emotive power of the work. Still, there is much worthy of praise, in particular the diminuendo of a choral work, which, for Zhang, epitomises classical elegance. At first glance, this essay is an awkward amalgam of Zhang's traditional musical criticism and the style of confessional literature in which he now specialised. Yet, while it is neither a masterpiece in terms of either literary creation or musical criticism, its true success lies in the fact that it records the many facets of this spectacle, the symbiotic relationship that exists between the musicians and the spectator, the concert hall and the urban setting, and the artist and art.

The author employs seemingly incidental details to chart his progress, from the chill of the artist's 'garret' to the damp pavements of North Sichuan Road, to the music store, a refuge from the chaos of urban life, and finally the cultured environs of the auditorium itself.

The characters encountered by the narrator also contribute to the ambience, specifically the courteous manners of the store's proprietor and the predominantly Japanese audience elegantly attired in both traditional and Western dress, all of whom anticipate the refinement of the music by Beethoven and Bach.

Penguin Island by Anatole France COMPLETE AUDIOBOOK

It is this very atmosphere that Zhang takes with him on his departure, one which the artist finds mirrored in everyday urban life. Like Zweig, Zhang sees the concert as the reflection of the urban experience, encapsulating the various emotions and themes which together define human existence. Therefore, by depicting the musical atmosphere of the city, Zhang hopes to awaken his readers to the fact that by simply participating in the life of the city they are sowing the seeds for their own enlightenment.

Here, Zhang echoes not only the Occidentalist manifesto of 'art for life's sake' but the artistic credo of Jung Wien. Like Otto Wagner before him, Zhang endeavours to recreate the world, offering the formula not for a renaissance but rather a 'naissance, a completely new beginning. In many regards, Zhang's career can be said to have followed the trajectory of nineteenth century Vienna, combining the musical perfection of the late Baroque and early Romantics with the exciting and frequently shocking experiments in aesthetic modernity that typified the city's avant-garde.

From his earliest attempts at musical criticism, Zhang would discover the musicality of the city, which in turn would come to define his own sense of literary mission. Henceforth, Zhang's role as an artist would be inextricably linked to the city of his birth. It was the beginning of a voyage in which he would explore his environment, a journey during which he would discover new aspects of city life and new models upon which to base his unique urban vision.

Shunning the natural wonders of Scandinavia, and even the classical ruins of Rome, Zhang now identified the great musical centres of Vienna, Berlin, Paris and London as the focal points for his cultural peregrinations both real and imaginary. Here he would become the painter of modern life, whose sole ambition was to capture the beauty of this illusory world. Zhang's use of a lengthy quote from Anatole France in his most dogged defence of his beloved Shanghai would have surprised neither his detractors nor his admirers.

For Zhang and many of his closest acquaintances, France, who had passed away only a few years earlier in , was both one of the literary immortals and the consummate French stylist, an author renowned as much for his erudition and love of beauty as his graceful prose. However, Zhang's borrowing from the Nobel laureate was more than simply another example of literary name-dropping. Consequently, 'The Seductive Metropolis' can be said to represent a unique moment in the city's intellectual history when polar conceptions of Shanghai converged, a continuation of the Occidentalist dogma and an anticipation of a modernist dystopia that was then forming in the imagination of a new generation of Shanghai writer.

The synthesis of the classical and the modern, the sacred and the profane, Zhang had found a way for the city's authors to resolve many of the contradictions that lay at the heart of the Shanghai Style.

Synonyms and antonyms of décadisme in the French dictionary of synonyms

Yet, ultimately Zhang's philosophy failed to sway his colleagues, eclipsed as it was by the growing chorus of anti-urban sentiment and rejected by the city's former supporters who quickly capitulated to demands for intellectual and political conformity. Ostensibly, this essay might well have been penned by any member of Shanghai's Occidentalist salon. As in their earliest works, the city is once again praised as the pinnacle of mankind's achievements where the civic ideals of Ancient Greece have continued into the modern age.

Quoting Fu Yanchang, Zhang equates Europe's most modern cities with the realisation of their artistic vision, where purely material phenomena, be it monumental architecture, beautiful mansions, or the pristine tree-lined streets, take on great symbolic significance, both a mirror of man's primal instincts and monuments to his subjugation of nature.

Aspects of the fin-de-siecle decadent paradox. - Free Online Library

Still, the author's acknowledgement that he was merely reiterating long-held beliefs is in itself highly important for it illustrates that, despite the famed fickleness of the Shanghai intellectual, the Occidentalists had not jettisoned their beliefs in order to keep abreast of intellectual fashions.

In fact, if anything, the Occidentalists' philosophy had finally garnered some degree of mainstream acceptance. Finding themselves suddenly in vogue, the Occidentalists became still more prolific, launching a new periodical in which they might continue their Attic-inspired educational campaign. While much space was devoted to examining all that came under the orbit of classicism from Homer and Michelangelo, this journal also featured the latest developments in the worlds of literature and visual arts, both domestic and foreign.

With his passion for French literature, it was Zhang Ruogu, however, who played a key role in bringing the Occidentalists' frequently jaundiced view of antiquity into line with the current artistic tastes. Although more colourful literary characters competed for the mantle of China's greatest decadent, it can be argued that it was Zhang himself who represented the true spirit of a Chinese decadence.

Such tendencies were evident even in Zhang's earliest writings, specifically in his outright rejection of the natural world in favour of the artificial urban landscape. While many of his generation championed the credo of 'art for art's sake' and indulged in similar fantasies of cosmopolitan Shanghai, none could match Zhang's unique sensibility, a mental landscape where all boundaries remained blurred, allowing Shanghai's exotic niches to segue seamlessly into Athens, Alexandria, Paris, or Berlin. If his colleagues' understanding of decadence was largely cerebral, then as a devout Catholic, Zhang's comprehension possessed a decidedly more numinous aspect.

It was the notions of blasphemy and sin absent from the work of his peers that informed the arguments set forth in 'The Seductive Metropolis.

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By his own admission, Zhang's conception of Shanghai's many temptations was entirely foreign. Professing a profound ignorance of classical Chinese literature a fact in which he took great delight , Zhang's thesis relied upon the works of such great European writers as Gustave Flaubert and Anatole France. If Zhang's references to the Lord's Prayer attest to his religious convictions, then Flaubert's kaleidoscopic La Tentation de Saint-Antoine and France's sensual evocation of pagan Alexandria provided him with the rich hues with which to depict the charms of Shanghai.

Since the Occidentalists considered the city to be the centre of modern life and the source of all new movements in the arts, then the myriad temptations of the metropolis must also be an essential aspect of both the urban lifestyle and the artistic experience.

checkout.midtrans.com/fuente-lamo-de-murcia-como-conocer-gente-nueva.php Therefore, in spite his own religious beliefs, Zhang now declared that is was incumbent on the modern artist to submit to the 'decadence of this floating life. Instead, like Joris-Karl Huysman before him, the artist's very 'corruption' became a means by which he might define his own opposition to conventional morality as they applied to society and the arts.

Synonyms and antonyms of décadisme in the French dictionary of synonyms

Zhang ridiculed the rustic ideal of those city-based intellectuals who resided in Shanghai and enjoyed the fruits of city living, but constantly bemoaned their alienation from nature. To Zhang, their loud and bitter denunciations of this 'haven of a myriad evils' and the 'den of degenerates' were little more than symptomatic of their intellectual and artistic redundancy. Clearly, Zhang's aestheticism was peculiar to both the era and his environment.

Like many of his peers, Zhang's decadent motives were evidence of his susceptibility to the intellectual fashions of Republican Shanghai during the Nanjing Era. However, if Zhang's decadence was a stylistic device that helped add colour to his prose, it was also an important intellectual tool which enabled the author to construct a new defence of Shanghai at a time when the city was increasingly considered to be in breach of May Fourth ideals.

Consequently, though Zhang's prose style was indebted to the theory of l'art pour l'art , it would never be divorced from the Occidentalists' very ethical conception of their artistic mission.

If Shanghai's temptations seemed firmly rooted in nineteenth-century European soil, its dynamism was grounded in the present day realities of treaty port life. Zhang's conception of Shanghai's charms was not only in direct opposition to current political thinking, it was also far broader than that of his Occidentalist peers. Outside the concert hall and far from the monumental architecture of the Bund, Zhang now found evidence of the city's splendour within the drudgery and oppression of the quotidian.